[RFC PATCH v2 1/1] powerpc: update ppc_save_regs to save current r1 in pt_regs

Nicholas Piggin npiggin at gmail.com
Thu Jun 15 22:10:01 AEST 2023

On Thu Jun 15, 2023 at 7:10 PM AEST, Aditya Gupta wrote:
> ppc_save_regs() skips one stack frame while saving the CPU register states.
> Instead of saving current R1, it pulls the previous stack frame pointer.
> When vmcores caused by direct panic call (such as `echo c >
> /proc/sysrq-trigger`), are debugged with gdb, gdb fails to show the
> backtrace correctly. On further analysis, it was found that it was because
> of mismatch between r1 and NIP.
> GDB uses NIP to get current function symbol and uses corresponding debug
> info of that function to unwind previous frames, but due to the
> mismatching r1 and NIP, the unwinding does not work, and it fails to
> unwind to the 2nd frame and hence does not show the backtrace.
> GDB backtrace with vmcore of kernel without this patch:
> ---------
> (gdb) bt
>  #0  0xc0000000002a53e8 in crash_setup_regs (oldregs=<optimized out>,
>     newregs=0xc000000004f8f8d8) at ./arch/powerpc/include/asm/kexec.h:69
>  #1  __crash_kexec (regs=<optimized out>) at kernel/kexec_core.c:974
>  #2  0x0000000000000063 in ?? ()
>  #3  0xc000000003579320 in ?? ()
> ---------
> Further analysis revealed that the mismatch occurred because
> "ppc_save_regs" was saving the previous stack's SP instead of the current
> r1. This patch fixes this by storing current r1 in the saved pt_regs.
> GDB backtrace with vmcore of patched kernel:
> --------
> (gdb) bt
>  #0  0xc0000000002a53e8 in crash_setup_regs (oldregs=0x0, newregs=0xc00000000670b8d8)
>     at ./arch/powerpc/include/asm/kexec.h:69
>  #1  __crash_kexec (regs=regs at entry=0x0) at kernel/kexec_core.c:974
>  #2  0xc000000000168918 in panic (fmt=fmt at entry=0xc000000001654a60 "sysrq triggered crash\n")
>     at kernel/panic.c:358
>  #3  0xc000000000b735f8 in sysrq_handle_crash (key=<optimized out>) at drivers/tty/sysrq.c:155
>  #4  0xc000000000b742cc in __handle_sysrq (key=key at entry=99, check_mask=check_mask at entry=false)
>     at drivers/tty/sysrq.c:602
>  #5  0xc000000000b7506c in write_sysrq_trigger (file=<optimized out>, buf=<optimized out>,
>     count=2, ppos=<optimized out>) at drivers/tty/sysrq.c:1163
>  #6  0xc00000000069a7bc in pde_write (ppos=<optimized out>, count=<optimized out>,
>     buf=<optimized out>, file=<optimized out>, pde=0xc00000000362cb40) at fs/proc/inode.c:340
>  #7  proc_reg_write (file=<optimized out>, buf=<optimized out>, count=<optimized out>,
>     ppos=<optimized out>) at fs/proc/inode.c:352
>  #8  0xc0000000005b3bbc in vfs_write (file=file at entry=0xc000000006aa6b00,
>     buf=buf at entry=0x61f498b4f60 <error: Cannot access memory at address 0x61f498b4f60>,
>     count=count at entry=2, pos=pos at entry=0xc00000000670bda0) at fs/read_write.c:582
>  #9  0xc0000000005b4264 in ksys_write (fd=<optimized out>,
>     buf=0x61f498b4f60 <error: Cannot access memory at address 0x61f498b4f60>, count=2)
>     at fs/read_write.c:637
>  #10 0xc00000000002ea2c in system_call_exception (regs=0xc00000000670be80, r0=<optimized out>)
>     at arch/powerpc/kernel/syscall.c:171
>  #11 0xc00000000000c270 in system_call_vectored_common ()
>     at arch/powerpc/kernel/interrupt_64.S:192
> --------
> Signed-off-by: Aditya Gupta <adityag at linux.ibm.com>

So this now saves regs as though it was an interrupt taken in the
caller, at the instruction after the call to ppc_save_regs, whereas
previously the NIP was there, but R1 came from the caller's caller
and that mismatch is what causes gdb's dwarf unwinder to go haywire.

Nice catch, and I think I follow the fix and I think I agree with it.
Before the bug was introduced, NIP also came from the grandparent.
Which is what xmon presumably wanted, but since then I think maybe it
makes more sense to just have the parent caller.

Reivewed-by: Nicholas Piggin <npiggin at gmail.com>
Fixes: d16a58f8854b1 ("powerpc: Improve ppc_save_regs()")


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