[RFC PATCH v2 0/2] Randomization of address chosen by mmap.

Matthew Wilcox willy at infradead.org
Sat Mar 24 06:29:52 AEDT 2018

On Fri, Mar 23, 2018 at 03:16:21PM -0400, Rich Felker wrote:
> > Huh, I thought libc was aware of this.  Also, I'd expect a libc-based
> > implementation to restrict itself to, eg, only loading libraries in
> > the bottom 1GB to avoid applications who want to map huge things from
> > running out of unfragmented address space.
> That seems like a rather arbitrary expectation and I'm not sure why
> you'd expect it to result in less fragmentation rather than more. For
> example if it started from 1GB and worked down, you'd immediately
> reduce the contiguous free space from ~3GB to ~2GB, and if it started
> from the bottom and worked up, brk would immediately become
> unavailable, increasing mmap pressure elsewhere.

By *not* limiting yourself to the bottom 1GB, you'll almost immediately
fragment the address space even worse.  Just looking at 'ls' as a
hopefully-good example of a typical app, it maps:

	linux-vdso.so.1 (0x00007ffef5eef000)
	libselinux.so.1 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libselinux.so.1 (0x00007fb3657f5000)
	libc.so.6 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc.so.6 (0x00007fb36543b000)
	libpcre.so.3 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpcre.so.3 (0x00007fb3651c9000)
	libdl.so.2 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libdl.so.2 (0x00007fb364fc5000)
	/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 (0x00007fb365c3f000)
	libpthread.so.0 => /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread.so.0 (0x00007fb364da7000)

The VDSO wouldn't move, but look at the distribution of mapping 6 things
into a 3GB address space in random locations.  What are the odds you have
a contiguous 1GB chunk of address space?  If you restrict yourself to the
bottom 1GB before running out of room and falling back to a sequential
allocation, you'll prevent a lot of fragmentation.

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