[PATCH 5/5] vfio-pci: Allow to mmap MSI-X table if interrupt remapping is supported
alex.williamson at redhat.com
Thu May 12 01:53:31 AEST 2016
On Wed, 11 May 2016 06:29:06 +0000
"Tian, Kevin" <kevin.tian at intel.com> wrote:
> > From: Alex Williamson [mailto:alex.williamson at redhat.com]
> > Sent: Thursday, May 05, 2016 11:05 PM
> > On Thu, 5 May 2016 12:15:46 +0000
> > "Tian, Kevin" <kevin.tian at intel.com> wrote:
> > > > From: Yongji Xie [mailto:xyjxie at linux.vnet.ibm.com]
> > > > Sent: Thursday, May 05, 2016 7:43 PM
> > > >
> > > > Hi David and Kevin,
> > > >
> > > > On 2016/5/5 17:54, David Laight wrote:
> > > >
> > > > > From: Tian, Kevin
> > > > >> Sent: 05 May 2016 10:37
> > > > > ...
> > > > >>> Acutually, we are not aimed at accessing MSI-X table from
> > > > >>> guest. So I think it's safe to passthrough MSI-X table if we
> > > > >>> can make sure guest kernel would not touch MSI-X table in
> > > > >>> normal code path such as para-virtualized guest kernel on PPC64.
> > > > >>>
> > > > >> Then how do you prevent malicious guest kernel accessing it?
> > > > > Or a malicious guest driver for an ethernet card setting up
> > > > > the receive buffer ring to contain a single word entry that
> > > > > contains the address associated with an MSI-X interrupt and
> > > > > then using a loopback mode to cause a specific packet be
> > > > > received that writes the required word through that address.
> > > > >
> > > > > Remember the PCIe cycle for an interrupt is a normal memory write
> > > > > cycle.
> > > > >
> > > > > David
> > > > >
> > > >
> > > > If we have enough permission to load a malicious driver or
> > > > kernel, we can easily break the guest without exposed
> > > > MSI-X table.
> > > >
> > > > I think it should be safe to expose MSI-X table if we can
> > > > make sure that malicious guest driver/kernel can't use
> > > > the MSI-X table to break other guest or host. The
> > > > capability of IRQ remapping could provide this
> > > > kind of protection.
> > > >
> > >
> > > With IRQ remapping it doesn't mean you can pass through MSI-X
> > > structure to guest. I know actual IRQ remapping might be platform
> > > specific, but at least for Intel VT-d specification, MSI-X entry must
> > > be configured with a remappable format by host kernel which
> > > contains an index into IRQ remapping table. The index will find a
> > > IRQ remapping entry which controls interrupt routing for a specific
> > > device. If you allow a malicious program random index into MSI-X
> > > entry of assigned device, the hole is obvious...
> > >
> > > Above might make sense only for a IRQ remapping implementation
> > > which doesn't rely on extended MSI-X format (e.g. simply based on
> > > BDF). If that's the case for PPC, then you should build MSI-X
> > > passthrough based on this fact instead of general IRQ remapping
> > > enabled or not.
> > I don't think anyone is expecting that we can expose the MSI-X vector
> > table to the guest and the guest can make direct use of it. The end
> > goal here is that the guest on a power system is already
> > paravirtualized to not program the device MSI-X by directly writing to
> > the MSI-X vector table. They have hypercalls for this since they
> > always run virtualized. Therefore a) they never intend to touch the
> > MSI-X vector table and b) they have sufficient isolation that a guest
> > can only hurt itself by doing so.
> > On x86 we don't have a), our method of programming the MSI-X vector
> > table is to directly write to it. Therefore we will always require QEMU
> > to place a MemoryRegion over the vector table to intercept those
> > accesses. However with interrupt remapping, we do have b) on x86, which
> > means that we don't need to be so strict in disallowing user accesses
> > to the MSI-X vector table. It's not useful for configuring MSI-X on
> > the device, but the user should only be able to hurt themselves by
> > writing it directly. x86 doesn't really get anything out of this
> > change, but it helps this special case on power pretty significantly
> > aiui. Thanks,
> Allowing guest direct write to MSI-x table has system-wide impact.
> As I explained earlier, hypervisor needs to control "interrupt_index"
> programmed in MSI-X entry, which is used to associate a specific
> IRQ remapping entry. Now if you expose whole MSI-x table to guest,
> it can program random index into MSI-X entry to associate with
> any IRQ remapping entry and then there won't be any isolation per se.
> You can check "5.5.2 MSI and MSI-X Register Programming" in VT-d
I think you're extrapolating beyond the vfio interface. The change
here is to remove the vfio protection of the MSI-X vector table when
the system provides interrupt isolation. The argument is that this is
safe to do because the hardware protects the host from erroneous and
malicious user programming, but it is not meant to provide a means to
program MSI-X directly through the vector table. This is effectively
the same as general DMA programming, if the vfio programming model is
not followed the device generates iommu faults. I do have a concern
that userspace driver writers are going to more often presume they can
use the vector table directly because of this change, but I don't know
that that is sufficient reason to prevent such a change. They'll
quickly discover the device generates faults on interrupt rather than
working as expected.
The question of how this affects the hypervisor is completely
separate. Vfio in the kernel is a userspace driver interface, not a
hypervisor. QEMU is the hypervisor. We have no plans to provide the VM
with direct access to the MSI-X vector table for x86 guests on QEMU.
There will still be a MemoryRegion emulating access to the vector table
in order to translate writes into vfio interrupt ioctls. POWER would
drop the MemoryRegion so that the full page is mapped to the guest,
with the expectation that the guest never makes use of it since MSI-X
is always configured via hypercalls on POWER systems. Likewise I
expect ARM will still make use of the MemoryRegion emulating the vector
table, which leaves them exposed to the performance issue POWER is
trying to solve here since ARM also has 64k page support and has no
paravirtualized MSI-X programming interface afaik. x86 is not
impervious to this issue either, but a 4k page size falls within the
PCI spec recommendations for MSI-X structure alignment, so it's much
more rare to have issues. We have certainly seen hardware vendors that
ignore the PCI spec alignment recommendations, but so far only for
placing device registers within the same page as the PBA, which is an
easier problem to deal with since the PBA is relatively unused by
drivers. This may be an area where we need to develop a paravirt
interface for MSI-X programming which disable the MemoryRegion
emulating the vector table when used. Thanks,
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