[PATCH v2 7/7] Add documentation/howto for mpc85xx systems

Matthew McClintock msm at freescale.com
Wed Jul 21 06:15:00 EST 2010

Signed-off-by: Matthew McClintock <msm at freescale.com>
 doc/mpc85xx.txt |  190 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
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+			  mpc85xx kexec howto
+			  -------------------
+		  Matthew McClintock <msm at freescale.com>
+			Last Updated: 2010-07-20
+There is some terminology that will be useful which will be described here.
+boot kernel - the first one that you start, from u-boot for instance
+kexec kernel - the kernel that you reboot into when running "kexec -e"
+kdump kernel - the kernel that you reboot into after the boot kernel crash
+relocatable kernel - kernel that can boot from a 256MB alignment of physical
+		     memory (for mpc85xx systems at least)
+Each of the above types of kernels have specific requirements, they can
+all be different kernels or all the same kernel depending on your
+particular requirements.
+1) Build kernel for kexec (i.e. running kexec -e to reboot)
+This case is the simplest. You need to enable CONFIG_KEXEC for kexec for the
+"boot kernel", the kexec kernel can be a any kernel that already boots on your
+platform. However, if you want to be able run kexec again after rebooting once
+you will need to have CONFIG_KEXEC enabled for the kexec kernel as well.
+2) Build for kdump (i.e. for rebooting when your main kernel crashes)
+In this situation, you need to be aware that the kdump kernel will boot from
+a different physical address than your boot kernel (or even the kexec kernel). 
+There are two approaches to this. First, you can build a relocatable kernel
+which will boot from a different physical address with no changes. This method
+is ideal as it would even allow your boot kernel and kdump kernel to be the
+same one. Optionally, you can build a kernel with custom physical address and
+kernel base address according to where you will load the kdump kernel*, but
+it's much easier to just use a relocatable kernel and let things work
+themselves out at run time.
+You will need to enable CONFIG_CRASH_DUMP on the boot kernel. You can chose to
+enable CONFIG_RELOCATABLE for the kdump kernel, and you will still want to
+verify that CONFIG_KERNEL_START and CONFIG_PHYSICAL_START have sane defaults.
+Most likely, you can leave these as 0xC0000000 and 0x0000000 respectively.
+Finally, on the kdump kernel you will want to make sure CONFIG_PROC_VMCORE is
+enabled as well so the core dump is exported via /proc/vmcore. You can just 
+enable all these options on the boot and kdump and use the same kernel for both
+which is the simplest option.
+Summary of 1 & 2:
+Just enable kexec, crash support, and relocatable kernel and you should be good
+to go for all of the above scenarios using the same kernel.
+3) Obtaining a device tree
+You best bet for getting a working device tree is to pull the one the current
+kernel is using. The easiest way to do this is use the device tree compiler
+to create one from the proc file system
+	$ dtc -I fs -O dtb /proc/device-tree/ > flat-device-tree
+Kexec should be able to take this flat device tree, and modifiy it/update it
+as needed for your particular scenario. It will update memreserve regions, add
+initrd/ramdisks, fixup the command line, etc.
+NOTE: If no device tree is given, kexec will do the above on it's own to 
+      obtain a useable device tree. You can specify the device tree to use
+      with the --dtb=<flat_device_tree_blob> kexec argument.
+4) Kexec'ing a new kernel
+If you have followed the procedure above you need to do the following to reboot
+into a new kexec kernel.
+	$ kexec -l {uImage,vmlinux}
+	$ kexec -e
+These options will boot the new kernel, you should see some message as shown
+below.  NOTE: The old command line is used, so if you are booting from an NFS
+mount it should work fine, however it you are using an initrd/ramdisk there are
+caveats to consider (see #6 below).
+	sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] Synchronizing SCSI cache
+	Starting new kernel
+	Bye!
+	Reserving 256MB of memory at 512MB for crashkernel (System RAM: 4096MB)
+	Using MPC8572 DS machine description
+	[snip]
+5) Setting for a kdump kernel
+For the boot kernel, you need to reserve a region of memory for the kdump kernel
+to use when the system crashes. This region is removed for use from the boot
+kernel and when the system crashes the kdump kernel will operate out of this
+region exclusively. For mpc85xx, we need to pick a region aligned at 256MB if we
+are using a relocatable kernel, other than that the size allocated needs to leave
+enough memory for your kdump environment to function properly as well as store
+the kdump kernel and any other items added (this would most likely be a ramdisk).
+Some valid options are:
+	crashkernel={128M,256M,512M}@{256M,512M} and others
+For the example below we choose 256MB (0x10000000) of memory located at offset 
+512MB (0x20000000). The command line option would look like this.
+	crashkernel=256M at 512M
+You can see the values the kernel parsed by running looking
+at your proc entries. In this case, the physical address is a 64bit value.
+	$ hexdump -C /proc/device-tree/chosen/linux,crashkernel-base 
+	00000000  00 00 00 00 20 00 00 00                           |.... ...|
+	00000008
+	$ hexdump -C /proc/device-tree/chosen/linux,crashkernel-size 
+	00000000  00 00 00 00 10 00 00 00                           |........|
+	00000008
+Kdump kernels are only run when the current kernel crashes, there you can not
+just restart your system. However, you can still trigger a crash for testing 
+purposes by enabling CONFIG_MAGIC_SYSRQ and executing the following.
+	$ echo c > /proc/sysrq-trigger
+However, before this we need to setup our kdump kernel as shown below.
+	$ kexec -p {uImage.reloc, vmlinux}
+The kernel we pass in is a relocatable kernel, in the case of vmlinux no changes
+are required since there is no wrapper specifically assigning it to a certain
+address. However, kexec will attempt to honor the addresses given to mkimage
+when you created your uImage, therefore you need to create a uImage with the
+appropriate load and entry address
+	$ mkimage -A ppc -O linux -T kernel -C gzip -a 0x20000000 -e 0x20000000
+	-n Linux-2.6.35-rc3
+	Image Name:   Linux-2.6.35-rc3-00246-gd666cd8-
+	Created:      Wed Jul 14 17:34:19 2010
+	Image Type:   PowerPC Linux Kernel Image (gzip compressed)
+	Data Size:    3261979 Bytes = 3185.53 kB = 3.11 MB
+	Load Address: 0x20000000
+	Entry Point:  0x20000000
+You do not sctrictly need to use a RELOCATABLE kernel, you can build a kernel
+that can execute from this load address and entry point and it would your 
+kdump kernel would still function properly.
+The above load address aligns with the crashkernel argument we passed
+in via the command line. It is important to make sure these addresses match
+each other when using uImage. It's less important for vmlinux since kexec will
+attempt to load it at the first available region which should match correctly.
+6) Misc. options to kexec
+There are a few options you can pass into kexec to modify it's behaviour. First,
+if you want to reuse your current initrd/ramdisk you can use the following.
+You will also need to add "retain_initrd" to the boot kernel command line for
+this option to work. So now your command line would look something like this.
+	crashkernel=256M at 512M retain_initrd
+NOTE: If you are setting up a kdump kernel, you will need to make sure your 
+original initrd/ramdisk resides in the memory range reserved for the kdump
+kernel, otherwise the kdump kernel won't be able to access it. For example
+it needs to live within the 512MB-768M range in this case. A warning will
+be displayed if this is not the case.
+	$ kexec -p uImage.reloc --reuseinitrd
+It's even easier to specify a new ramdisk and you don't need to modify your
+boot kernel command line. You also might need to update your command line to
+boot with your new ramdisk, you can do it via the --command-line option as well
+as add any other changes you want to the command line as well.
+	$ kexec -p uImage.reloc --ramdisk=rootfs.ext2.gz
+	  --command-line="root=/dev/ram rw console=ttyS0,115200"
+or the following if you wanted kexec and add "retain_initrd" to the command
+line and boot with a ramdisk
+	$ kexec -l uImage --ramdisk=rootfs.ext2.gz 
+          --command-line="`cat /proc/cmdline` retain_initrd"
+	$ kexec -e
+7) After a crash
+If you have a kdump kernel loaded and your system crashes you can now debug
+the crash.
+	$ gdb vmlinux /proc/vmcore
+You might need to copy these files elsewhere or setup your ramdisk to do these
+things automatically.

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